首页 / 正文
格蕾斯专栏之八:希望/巴格达
发布时间:2007-04-18 19:53:59  点击次数:867次    [ 进入论坛]
What is Hope? Where does it come from?

Hope emerges, seemingly out of nowhere, when people who have viewed themselves mainly as victims begin feeling that another world is possible and that by acting together they can bring it into being.

Movements begin when Hope trumps despair,

That’s what happened in 1941 when tens of thousands of unemployed blacks, in response to A. .Philip Randolph’s Call to March on Washington, forced President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 8802 banning discrimination in hiring by defense plants.

It’s what happened in 1955 when the black community in Montgomery, Ala., responding to the Women’s Political Alliance’s Call to protest the arrest of Rosa Parks for refusing to give up her seat to a white man, began the successful 13 month bus boycott which inspired the many movements of the sixties.

It’s also what happened in the early 1960s when the Black Power movement began in Detroit with a few individuals and groups declaring that it was intolerable for a city becoming majority black to be run only by whites.

Overnight people who had been divided by all kinds of issues began coming together.

That’s what’s happening now in Detroit.

In response to the call of the Boggs Center to commemorate the 40th anniversary of MLK’s “Break the Silence” speech and of the 1967 Rebellion by “Transforming Grief into Hope,” people are coming together across race, class, ideological and geographical lines.

More than two dozen diverse community organizations have endorsed the event.

On the afternoon of April 21, at the Williams Community Center, epicenter of the 1967 Rebellion, they will say with one voice “ Let’s stop the killing! Let’s come together and build our lives and our city. Let’s build the city of Hope for our children and our children’s children in memory of all the victims and survivors of gun violence.”

The gathering - from 3:30-6 p.m. - will feature Food, Fellowship, Singing, Poetry, Speakout and Art. Participants will post photos of their loved ones who have died needlessly on a wall of commemoration.

“Grief into Hope” is part of an all-day celebration of P.E.A.C.E (Partnering to Engage and Activate Community Empowerment) which begins at 12 noon at the Center with youth-led workshops and speakout, hosted by Pioneers for Peace. In the evening, from 7-9 p.m., T.E.A.R.S. (Detroit Teens Eyes & Ears) will create a Memorial collage and conduct a candlelight vigil.

April 21 is the culmination of the efforts of many organizations and individuals who have kept hope alive over the years by diverse initiatives, e.g. honoring the legacies of our ancestors, marching against crackhouses, planting community gardens, painting public murals, creating youth theatre. founding an alternative high school where teenage mothers raise farm animals and fruit trees and installed wind turbines on top of the barn they built.

Last year’s decision by community foundations to focus on reviving specific Detroit neighborhoods has contributed to the renewal of hope. Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick’s subsequent selection of six neighborhoods to revive was welcomed by grassroots Detroiters who have criticized city officials for focusing too exclusively on downtown development and courting developers.

The recent series of “Shrinking Cities” discussions, workshops and films at the new Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCAD) and the Cranbrook Art Museum has also contributed by challenging Detroiters to view de-industrialization as a unique opportunity to create a new post-modern self-governing city.

A huge poster on the wall at MOCAD reminds visitors that “The crises of state organization and economic development have put the spotlight on self-organization….The ‘gaps’ made available by state withdrawal offer possibilities in shrinking cities for the development of social and cultural initiatives of a liberationist nature, which can give rise to viable, socially integrative and culturally ambitious activities.”

As Mayor Kilpatrick put it in his March 13 State of the City speech: “It’s up to us.
Together, we can grow this city. Together, we can!”

THINKING FOR OURSELVES
Falling in Baghdad
By Shea Howell
Michigan Citizen, April 15-21, 2007

This week marks the passage of four years since the fall of Baghdad to the U.S. military when the “Shock and Awe” campaign directed by Donald Rumsfeld came to its dramatic conclusion as tanks rolled through the streets of one of the oldest cities on earth.

The image that captures this moment in the minds of many Americans was the toppling of the 20 foot statue of Saddam Hussein in Firdus Square. This image was meant to simultaneously convey U.S. triumph, the impotence of Saddam, and the joy in Baghdad over the arrival of American troops.

Before a small crowd of international journalists and about 100 Iraqi militia, US soldiers placed chains around the neck and outstretched arm of the statue, tied it to an armored vehicle, pulled it down and dragged it to the ground. Initially a soldier had placed an American Flag on the statue’s head. Facing criticism that this might be viewed as an inflammatory symbol, the U.S. flag was replaced with an Iraqi one. Surrounding this event were images of Iraqis celebrating at Saddam’s plunge into the dust, dancing and kicking at the fallen image.

Within a few days we learned that the whole event had been staged as a photo op. It turned out that many of the photos circulated world-wide had been doctored to make the celebrating crowds of Iraqis appear bigger than they actually were.

Like so much else about this war, the fall of Baghdad was surrounded by orchestrated efforts to obscure facts, manufacture lies and manipulate emotions. All too soon it became clear that Baghdad had really fallen not into the hands of American troops but into chaos. The U.S. was as impotent as Saddam in stopping the slide toward civil war and there has been no joy in the deployment of an occupation army.

Today nearly 100 Iraqis die every day. On virtually every dimension of life, from infant mortality to death by violence, life in Iraq has become worse than before the fall of Baghdad. The normal routines of daily life - prayer, school, shopping, going to work, playing with children and gossiping with neighbors - have all turned deadly. People disappear into crowded prisons and secret torture chambers.

It is this reality that compelled tens of thousands of Iraqis to take to the streets of the holy city of Najaf this week to mark the anniversary of the fall of Baghdad. They did not come because they were “ordered to” as much of the press reported. They came to demand an end to the U.S. occupation. Organized by Moktada al-Sadr, the young Shiite cleric who has increased his following by his strong anti-occupation stance, the rally was a much more realistic expression of the will of the Iraqi people than anything orchestrated by the U.S.

Like the photo op staged four years ago, flags played a prominent part in this demonstration. This time American flags were burned and ripped apart. Iraqi flags were carried proudly, large ones that took teams of people to hold, small ones in the hands of children or draped over elders in wheel chairs.

In a widely-broadcast speech building up to the rally, al-Sadr urged the militias and the army to join together to defeat “your arch-enemy.” He concluded by saying “In the end, I renew my demands for the withdrawal of the occupier from our land.”

This demonstration says more about the future of Iraq and the futility of the U.S. presence than anything staged by an isolated president, able only to send more people to their deaths.


参考译文:

希望是什么?希望从何处而来?
   当那些自认为是受害者的人们,开始感觉另一世界是可能的,且通过努力就能实现时,希望就浮出水面了,而且无处不在。

当希望陷入绝望时,运动就不可避免了,作为对菲利普伦道夫号召的响应,1941年数万名黑人涌向华盛顿进行抗议,迫使总统富兰克林·罗斯福公布行政命令8802,禁止国防工厂中的种族歧视。

1955年阿拉巴马州蒙哥马利的黑人团体响应妇女政治联盟的号召,抗议警方因拒绝给白人让座而逮捕罗萨·帕斯克,并掀起的一场长达13个月的轰轰烈烈的公交车抵制运动,该事件使60年代的运动大受鼓舞。

20世纪60年代早期也发生类似事件,一些个人和团体首先在底特律兴起了黑人政权运动,他们宣称黑人占优势的城市被白人控制是一件令人无法容忍的事情。

一夜之间,曾经意见分歧的人们开始走到一起。

底特律正在上演着同样的故事。

为了响应博格斯中心纪念马丁·路德·金“打破沉默”的演讲和1967年“化悲痛为希望”反叛运动40周年纪念日,不同种族、阶级、意识形态和地域的人们走到一起。

至少有24个不同的社区组织已经公开支持此事件。

421日下午,在1967年反抗运动反抗运动中心威廉斯,他们将异口同声地说“让我们停止杀戮!让我们共同建设我们的生活和城市,让我们为我们的后代建设希望的城市以纪念在枪击案中的遇难者和生存者。”

这次从下午三点半到六点的聚会以引人深思的想法、友谊、歌唱、诗歌、公开反对和艺术为特色。参与者将把自己白白牺牲的亲朋好友的照片张贴在纪念墙上。

“化悲痛为希望”是合作伙伴参与和激活社区建设全天庆祝活动的组成部分,这场由和平先锋举办的庆典于中午12点在威廉斯中心举行,底特律十几岁的少年将创作纪念拼贴画和组织烛光守夜祈祷。

421日标志着众多组织和个人艰难尝试的圆满结束,多年来他们通过各种各样的方式创造自己的希望,例如兑现祖先的遗产,修建倒塌的房子,种植社区花园,画公共壁画,创作青年戏剧。他们创立另类的高中,在那里年轻的母亲可以饲养家禽和种植果树,并且还在所建的畜棚上安装风力汽轮机。

去年,基金会作出了重建底特律特定街区的决定,这已对希望的恢复起到了促进作用。市长夸校基尔帕特里克随后进行的街区选择深受底特律平民百姓的欢迎,这些人曾经批评城市官员过于关注市中心的发展和试图取悦于己的开发商。

因为底特律人被要求把非工业化视为创造新的后现代化自治城市的难得机遇,所以新的当代博物馆和克兰布鲁克艺术博物馆增添了一系列有关压缩城的商讨、讨论会和新闻片。

当代艺术博物馆墙上的大海报提醒参观者:政权和经济发展的危机使自我组织成为人们关注的焦点……政府撤军所产生的分歧是压缩成中自由论者文化的发展有了可能,这同时也带来了切实可行、社会综合性和雄心勃勃的文化活动。

正如市长基尔帕特里克在313日的市政府讲话中所说:这是我们的职责。只要同心协力,我们就能够使我们的城市日益强大。只要同心协力,我们就一定能成功。

 

时光飞逝,这周已是巴格达沦陷于美军的第四个年头,当坦克轰轰地驶过世界最古老城市的街区时,拉姆斯菲尔德领导的“震惊和敬畏”运动也已接近戏剧性的尾声。

此时此刻,浮现在美国人脑海中的是Firdus广场上高达20英尺的萨达姆.侯赛因雕像的轰然倒塌。这个画面同时也意味着美国的巨大胜利、萨达姆的束手无策和巴格达因美军的到来而产生的狂欢。

在一些国际记者和约100个民兵组织面前,美国士兵把镣铐套在雕像的脖子和张开的手臂上,并把雕像系到装甲车上,然后将其捣毁,拖拉到地上。最初有一士兵把美国国旗插在雕像的头上,但迫于这一行为具有煽动性的舆论压力,美国国旗最终被换成了伊拉克国旗。围绕此次事件,伊拉克人还还庆祝了萨达姆的死亡,并且在倒塌的雕像前又舞又踢。

不出几天,我们就了解到整个事件都是精心策划的结果。那些在世界范围内流传的照片都是篡改过的,以便使伊拉克庆祝人群看起来比事实上的要庞大的多。

就像战争的其他许多方面一样,巴格达的沦陷充满了隐晦的事实、不计其数的的谎言和遭人操控的情绪。一切都转瞬即逝,显而易见的是巴格达并不是沦陷于美军之手,而是沦陷于混乱。在即将来临的内战面前,美国和萨达姆一样地无能为力,人们也并没有为美军的部署而感到喜悦。

如今,每天都有近100个伊拉克人死亡。人们生活的各个层面,不管是婴幼儿的死亡,还是因暴力死亡,都要比巴格达沦陷前要严峻的多。人们日常生活的正常组成部分——祈祷、上学、购物、上班、与孩子玩耍和与邻居闲聊,统统都变成了枯燥的事情。许多人永远消失在拥挤的监狱和秘密的拷问室里。

事实上,本周曾有数万名伊拉克人被强迫要求来到纳杰夫圣城的街道上,以纪念巴格达的沦陷,但是他们的到场并不是因为新闻界要求他们这样做,而是因为他们想借此机会要求美国停止侵略。什叶派年轻的神职人员穆克塔达·萨德尔,因坚决反侵略而吸引了一大批追随者,这次聚会就是由他组织的。这次聚会与其说是美国精心策划的,不如说是伊拉克人意愿的真实表达。

正如四年前所展览的照片一样,国旗在这次游行示威中发挥了重要的作用。美国国旗在此次游行中惨遭焚毁和撕扯。伊拉克国旗在天空中高高飘扬,大的被握在众人手中,小的就被抓在小孩手中,或是随意地挂在老年人的轮椅上。

在一次为集会做准备的广播演讲中,萨德尔竭力主张民兵组织与军队合作,共同打击主要敌人。他在讲话即将结束时还说:“最后,我再次呼吁侵略者从我们的国土上撤军。”

在这次游行示威中,他们关注更多的是伊拉克的未来和美国插足的徒劳无益,而不是总统的一意孤行会使更多的人走向死亡。

翻译:刘小会

2008年7月31







打印该页 】【 关闭窗口
评论
签名: 验证码:
内容:
 


    暂无评论
麓山枫网站 版权所有 © 2006-2019  湘ICP备08003614
网站统计 管理登录 QQ:904518035